Revises the simple knowledge you should already have about the structure of atoms from introductory courses (e.g. GCSE).
Explains what atomic orbitals are and discusses their shapes and relative energies. This is essential pre-reading before you go on to any of the remaining topics in this section.
How to work out and write the electronic structures for atoms using s, p, d notation.
Electronic structures of ions
How to work out and write the electronic structures for simple monatomic ions (containing only one atom – e.g. Cl- or Mg2+) using s, p, d notation.
Successive ionisation energies
Explains what second, third, (etc) ionisation energy means, and then looks at patterns in successive ionisation energies for selected elements. It assumes that you understand about first ionisation energy.
Explains what electron affinities are and how and why they vary around the Periodic Table.
Atomic and ionic radii
Looks at the various measures of atomic radius, and explains how and why atomic radii vary around the Periodic Table. Also considers how the radii of positive and negative ions differ from the atoms they come from.
The Order of Filling 3d and 4s Orbital
Looks at some of the problems with the usual way of explaining the electronic structures of the d-block elements based on the order of filling of the d and s orbitals.
Orbits and orbitals
Explaining why the idea that electrons orbit a nucleus like planets around the sun is wrong.