What is a complex ion?
An introduction to complex ions with an explanation of what ligands are and how they bond to the central metal ion.
The origin of colour in complex ions
A simple explanation of why complex ions formed by transition metals tend to be coloured, and a look at the factors which cause the colours to change during reactions.
More about d orbitals in complex ions
Looks at the shapes of the 3d orbitals, and explains why they split into two groups of unequal energy when ligands approach and attach in an octahedral arrangement.